Bone tissue retains all of its qualitative and quantitative characteristics when stimulated by force. This force can be transmitted by a tooth or by an implant. When a tooth is extracted and not not replaced by a dental implant, in this case a natural phenomenon occurs. The jawbone will undergo bone resorption leading to bone atrophy (deficit).
The resorption of the bone occurs in a different way on the upper jaw and on the mandible. It can be aggravated by wearing a removable prosthesis, an All on 4 type prosthesis or by a peri implantitis.
Bone atrophy can reach 5 to 6 millimeters the first year (hence the advantage of immediate implantation post extraction) then 1 to 2 mm per year.
On the upper jaw bone loss acts both from below up along the roots and both from above with the sinus floor growing on the bone. there is no more tooth or implant to hold it, it can then descend until it leaves only the thickness of a sheet of bone tissue paper. Bone atrophy also acts in thickness.
Dental implants (traditional) can also negatively affect bone tissue when peri-implantitis occurs.
Bone grafting makes it possible to regain bone height by performing it immediately after extraction. Since its implementation in the 1980s, bone grafts have undergone many improvements. There are several techniques depending on the location. An increase in bone in the sinus cavity is called a sinus filling or sinus lift. An increase in height or thickness is called a shuttering or apposition graft. However, these interventions are carried out less and less since the arrival of the basal techniques making it possible to avoid the bone graft.